全球疾病负担研究（The Global Burden of Disease Study）发表了关于全球各国死因的权威性评估报告。
In your daily diet, aim to eat a mix of staple foods such as wheat, maize, rice and potatoes with legumes like lentils and beans, plenty of fresh fruit and veg, and foods from animal sources (e.g. meat, fish, eggs and milk).
Choose wholegrain foods like unprocessed maize, millet, oats, wheat and brown rice when you can; they are rich in valuable fibre and can help you feel full for longer.
For snacks, choose raw vegetables, unsalted nuts and fresh fruit, rather than foods that are high in sugars, fats or salt.
When cooking and preparing foods, use salt sparingly and reduce use of salty sauces and condiments (like soy sauce, stock or fish sauce).
Avoid snacks that are high in salt, and try and choose fresh healthy snacks over processed foods.
When using canned or dried vegetables, nuts and fruit, choose varieties without added salt and sugars.
Remove salt and salty condiments from the table and try and avoid adding them out of habit; our tastebuds can quickly adjust and once they do, you are likely to enjoy food with less salt, but more flavor!
Check the labels on food and go for products with lower sodium content.
We all need some fat in our diet, but eating too much – especially the wrong kinds - increases risks of obesity, heart disease and stroke. Industrially-produced trans fats are the most hazardous for health. A diet high in this kind of fat has been found to raise risk of heart disease by nearly 30%.
Replace butter, lard and ghee with healthier oils such as soybean, canola (rapeseed), corn, safflower and sunflower.
Choose white meat like poultry and fish which are generally lower in fats than red meat, trim meat of visible fat and limit the consumption of processed meats.
Try steaming or boiling instead of frying food when cooking.
Check labels and always avoid all processed, fast and fried foods that contain industrially-produced trans fat. It is often found in margarine and ghee, as well as pre-packaged snacks, fast, baked and fried foods.
Too much sugar is not only bad for our teeth, but increases the risk of unhealthy weight gain and obesity, which can lead to serious, chronic health problems.
As with salt, it’s important to take note of the amount of “hidden” sugars that can be in processed food and drinks. For example, a single can of soda can contain up to 10 teaspoons of added sugar!
Some tips to reduce sugar intake:
Limit intake of sweets and sugary drinks such as fizzy drinks, fruit juices and juice drinks, liquid and powder concentrates, flavoured water, energy and sports drinks, ready-to-drink tea and coffee and flavoured milk drinks.
Choose healthy fresh snacks rather than processed foods.
Avoid giving sugary foods to children. Salt and sugars should not be added to complementary foods give to children under 2 years of age, and should be limited beyond that age.
Alcohol is not a part of a healthy diet, but in many cultures New Year’s celebrations are associated with heavy alcohol consumption. Overall, drinking too much, or too often, increases your immediate risk of injury, as well as causing longer-term effects like liver damage, cancer, heart disease and mental illness.
WHO advises that there is no safe level of alcohol consumption; and for many people even low levels of alcohol use can still be associated with significant health risks .
Remember, less alcohol consumption is always better for health and it is perfectly OK not to drink.
You should not drink alcohol at all if you are: pregnant or breastfeeding; driving, operating machinery or undertaking other activities that involve related risks; you have health problems which may be made worse by alcohol; you are taking medicines which directly interact with alcohol; or you have difficulties with controlling your drinking.
If you think your or someone you love may have problems with alcohol or other psychoactive substances, don’t be afraid to reach out for help from your health worker or a specialist drug and alcohol service. WHO has also developed a self-help guide to provide guidance to people looking to cut back or stop use.
Watch: Facebook live on healthy diets
The trendy superfood ‘red dates’ from Asia kill cancer cells in the lab, new research suggests.
Jujube fruits, which are known as red dates due to them looking similar to the Middle-Eastern staple, programme lung, breast and prostate cancer cells to commit suicide, a study published in the journal Food & Function found.
Red dates are thought to trigger cancer cell death by causing 'internal stress' in tumours, according to researchers from the Royal Society of Chemistry.
The results occurred after cancer cells were exposed to jujube in the lab. It is therefore unclear if the fruit helps to prevent or treat the disease in humans.
Jujube fruits, which are used in Chinese medicine to treat insomnia, a loss of appetite and diarrhoea, are available in the UK for just £1.99 for a 40g bag.
The researchers exposed human lung, breast and prostate cancer cells to eight compounds found in jujube fruits.
Results suggest four of the compounds reduce the survival rate of these cells.
In addition, three red-date compounds trigger cancerous cells to kill themselves.
Internal stress caused by the compounds is thought to damage tumours' structures.
The researchers believe jujube extracts could be used in cancer treatments in traditional Chinese medicine.
They add, however, further research is required to determine how jujube fruit's compounds trigger cancer cell death.
What are red dates?
Although jujube fruits look like dates, they are believed to contain 32 times more vitamin C, as well as being higher in antioxidants, than the sticky Middle-Eastern treat.
A portion of three dates contains 54 calories and 12g on sugar, on average, while the same amount of jujube has just 28 calories and 6g of sugar.
Jujube fruits also contain 18 out of the 24 amino acids that help with the formation of proteins in the body.
Helen Wang, founder of Abakus Foods, previously told MailOnline: 'The Chinese saying goes "three jujube berries a day, keeps you young forever".
'It's not easy to find something that tastes good and is good for you at the same time.'
Blackcurrant supplement can burn as much fat as four weeks of exercise
This comes after research released last May suggested a blackcurrant-extract supplement can burn as much fat as four weeks of regular exercise.
When taken twice a day for just one week, the vitamin increases fat burning by an average of 27 per cent, with one study participant achieving a rise of 55 per cent.
Known as CurraNZ, the supplement is made from New Zealand blackcurrants and costs £21.75 for a pack of 30.
The berries contain nutrients, called polyphenols, which are thought to encourage fat burning during exercise by increasing blood flow, according to the researchers.
Study author Dr Sam Shepherd, from Liverpool John Moores University, said: 'Seven days is not a very long time to see such big changes.
'Anything above 20 per cent is typically what we expect to see with three-to-four weeks of regular endurance exercise training.'
Nearly 80 percent of hair products aimed at black women contain chemicals linked to cancer, infertility and obesity, research suggested in April 2018.
Up to 78 percent of relaxers, which are used to permanently straighten hair, contain hormone-disrupting chemicals, known as parabens, a study by the Silent Spring Institute, Massachusetts, found.
Past studies suggest parabens, which are used as preservatives, mimic oestrogen and may cause cancer, weight gain and reduced muscle mass.
Up to 78 percent of hair products, including leave-in conditioners, also contain phthalates, the research adds.
Phthalates are added to prolong products' shelf lives and have been linked to breast and ovarian cancer, as well as early menopause.
Out of the 18 products analysed, 11 contain chemicals that are banned under the EU cosmetic regulations due to their links to cancer and female infertility.
Previous research suggests black women are more likely to use straightening and moisturising hair products to try and meet social beauty norms.
Results further suggest that hair products aimed at black women contain up to 45 hormone-disrupting chemicals, which are not generally listed on their labels.
All of the products contain at least one fragrance, which have previously been described as 'gender benders' due to them encouraging male-breast growth.
The worst offenders were found in hair lotions, root stimulators and relaxers.
Lotions claim to moisturise, while root stimulators are thought to encourage hair growth and strength.
Since we are on subject of the plant-based something, I might as well elaborate a little bit on the plant-based milk since we had already touched upon plant-based hamburger last time.
I spent 17 years of my career using soy protein isolates in the development and formulation of protein-containing neutral and acidic beverages including powdered dry blended and liquid ready to drink versions. Of the name brand touched are Amway, Herbalife, Ensure, Slim Fast, Carnation Instant Breakfast, Boost, Bolthouse, Odawalla, V8 and Naked Juices, etc. In them, soy protein isolates are used to replace dairy protein for economic reason. Let’s leave out technicality but just focus on the definition of “milk”. Cow’s milk is the gold standard On a per 8 oz. or 240 ml. serving basis, it needs to contain at least 8 g of protein or it can only be called drinks. Furthermore, milk is high in calcium content as well as rich in vitamin A, therefore, for a plant-based milk to claim for milk nutrition in plant-based milk, fortification is necessary other than meeting the protein requirement
These have been the rules strongly lobbied by the dairy industry as well as enforced by both FDA and USDA. However, time seems to have changed recently because of the trendy demands for plant-based products, the regulatory agency like FDA has loosened up the definition. Therefore, we saw in the news that Just Mayo egg-free mayonnaise by Hampton Creek had won the legal battle against the famous Hellmann’s brand by Unilever. However, the French food regulation had just forbidden all the non-meat products to use the meat name like hamburger, meat ball and/or meat pie, etc. Interesting!
As a wise consumer, I just want you to shop wisely. Shop for your health and nutrition but also shop for your hard-earned money making sure the products you buy is well worth the money you spent.
On the market places now we can see commercial coconut milk, pea protein milk, soy milk, rice milk, cashew milk, almond milk and may be soon peanut milk. I did some shopping around and want to share with you their nutrition labelling. Using the name brand Silk for example, their soy milks contain between 6-7g per serving of 8oz. For their coconut milk, the protein claim is 0g/8oz, for almond milk 1g/8oz and cashew milk<1g/8oz. However, they do have other version claimed with high protein milk and fortified with pea protein.
If we have some Chinese readers here asking about your famous brand of “6 Walnuts”, I did some homework there, too. By calculation based on its nutritional labeling of 0.6g protein/100 ml, it contains about 2 walnuts but not 6! They have about 1.44g/240 ml of protein, not much better than either almond or cashew milk here in the States. So, be wise when you shop for plant-based milk!
Last month we discussed about the trendy human nutrition topics. Among them, protein appeared to be one of the most important and hot item in different areas of human nutrition such as sport nutrition, weight management, and health & wellness. This month we are to focus on the plant-based proteins.
According to Lux Research, plant-based protein could represent one-third of overall protein by 2054. Introduction of new products with plant-based proteins grew 14.7% in 2014 as compared to that of animal protein at 7.5% by Innova Market Insights. U.S. sales of plant-based proteins were $553 million in 2012, according to Mintel. The global plant-based protein market is projected to reach to $5 billion by 2020 as reported by Markets and Markets. The plant-based food sector experienced overall growth of 8.1% since 2017 as compared to a decline of 0.2% of all foods sold in the same channel, according to Nielsen.
The plant-based milk category has grown 3.1% last year while cow’s milk sales experienced decrease of 5% as by Nielsen. U.S. sales of almond milk topped $1 billion in 2014 as reported by Packaged Facts. Globally, dairy alternatives market is predicted to be worth $19.5 billion by 2020.
Consumers want plant-based products. About 36% of consumers buy plant-based meats and 60% of the millennials consume plant-based meats according to a survey conducted by 210 Analytics. About 26% of consumers reported eating less animal meat in the past 12 months according to Nutrition Business Journal. Nowadays about 36% of consumers prefer plant-based milks.
Most importantly, plant-based is better for the environment. Producing plant-based meat alternatives generates 10X less greenhouse gas emissions than producing similar beef-based products. Producing 1 Kg of kidney bean protein requires 18X less land, 10X less water, 9X less fuel, 12X less fertilizer and 10X less pesticides than producing 1 Kg of beef protein, according to study by Sabate et al. Plant-based eaters contribute approximately half as much dietary greenhouse gases as meat-eaters. It takes 10g of vegetable protein to create every 1g of animal protein according to a study by Reijnders et al.
If beans replaced beef in the US diet, the US could meet up to 75% of its 2020 greenhouse gas reduction target as reported by Helen Harwatt et. Al. Substituting beans for beef in the US diet would free up 42% of US cropland or 400 million square acres, or 1.6 times the size of California.
When the meatpacking giant Cargill sold off its last cattle feedlots in April 2017, it said that it wanted to free up funds to invest in alternatives like insects and plant-based protein. Four months later, along with Bill Gates and Richard Branson, the company joined a $17 million round of investment in Memphis Meats, a startup that grows beef and chicken from cells instead of farms. Tyson Foods, the largest meat producer in the U.S., was part of a $55 million round of investment in Beyond Meat. Nestle acquired Sweet Earth Foods, which sells products like “Harmless Ham” and “Benevolent Bacon”. Maple Leaf Foods strong in the meat product categories acquired Lightlife, a company that makes products like “Chick’n” and plant-based hot dogs.
Newer companies in the industry, such as Impossible Foods and Memphis Meats, aren’t targeting vegetarians with their products; instead, their burgers are designed to appeal to meat eaters who are concerned about issues like the carbon footprint of beef, or the overuse of antibiotics on farms. Companies like Morning Star Farm that have been around longer, making veggie burgers for a niche market, are also realizing that their products can evolve. Technology is making meatless meat truly realistic and will continue to improve.
When Impossible Burgers are compared against Beyond Burgers side by side, a reporter testified both were extremely good and couldn’t tell them from the regular burgers. I tried to buy the Beyond Burgers from Wegman’s and cooked them at home and served them to my family members of four. Everybody liked the burgers. Beyond Meats distributed in 19,000 retail stores while Impossible Burgers are sold in burger outlets like TGIF’s. It just got another round of investment total up to $40 million.
As for plant based milks, almost all the major beverage brands are having their products on the shelf. There are coconut milk, peanut milk, soy milk, pea milk, cashew milk, walnut milk and almond milk, etc. During my time in the soy milk industry, the milk industry lobbied that the standard identity of milk is sacred and the other protein beverages to be called milk should meet the nutritional profile of milk before they can be called milk or they should be called milk drinks. The Just Mayo court battle is well known between Unilever’s Hellman’s Mayonnaise and Hampton Creek Foods. FDA seemed to loosen up the standard of identity quite a bit. For consumer buying plant-based milk, I urge you read the nutritional labels. Usually, I won’t buy almond, walnut, coconut or cashew milk, their proteins are extremely low per serving of 8 oz. as compared to true milk.
Talk to you next month!
来自罗马琳达大学的Gary Fraser博士和来自巴黎高科农业学院和国家农艺研究所的FrançoisMariotti博士担任联合首席研究员。Fraser 说：“虽然膳食脂肪是对患心血管疾病的风险产生影响的因素之一，但蛋白质也可能对这种风险有很重要影响，这种影响是独立的，却会在很大程度上被忽略。”他还说，他和他同事一直怀疑坚果和植物能保护心脏，而红肉有使人患心脏病的危险。
更多信息：Marion Tharrey et al，“植物和动物蛋白质摄入模式与心血管死亡率密切相关：基督复临健康研究-2队列”，《国际流行病学杂志》（2018年）DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy030
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